Aerial Cloud Seeding - The Rainmakers of Aerial Work Aviation

Climate change is contributing to more droughts and water shortages on continents worldwide. The frequency and duration of droughts have increased by nearly a third since 2000. One unique solution to this growing problem is aerial cloud seeding. If you've never heard of this unique Aerial Work sector, Patrick Ryan will walk you through the ins and outs of this specialized aerial operation.

Patrick Ryan  |  21st September 2023
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    Patrick Ryan
    Patrick Ryan

    Patrick Ryan brings over 30 years of experience as a Senior Consultant helping government and business...

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    Aerial Cloud Seeding - The Rainmakers of Aerial Work Aviation

    Aerial cloud seeding has been around since the 1940s, and countries all over the globe have been doing it for various reasons, but it's a growing practice in many of the hardest-hit drought regions of the world. 

    As with many unique flight operations, there is controversy or misunderstanding. Regarding aerial cloud seeding, this particular Aerial Work operation faces criticism and skepticism, particularly related to its effectiveness, ethical concerns, and potential unintended consequences. Many believe aerial cloud seeding is "playing God" or "stealing water from the clouds." Another concern surrounding aerial cloud seeding is its impact on the environment. 

    So, outside of controversy, what is the true story of aerial cloud seeding, and how does Aerial Work aviation play its part in this essential but unique flight operation?

    The History of Aerial Cloud Seeding 

    Let's start at the beginning. The history of aerial cloud seeding dates back several decades and is intertwined with the development of weather modification techniques. The concept of cloud seeding was first proposed by Vincent Schaefer, an American chemist, in the late 1940s. He conducted laboratory experiments using a freezer to create ice crystals, which led to the development of cloud-seeding techniques. In 1946, he conducted the first field experiment using dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide) to trigger snowfall from a cloud. 

    After these initial developments, aerial cloud seeding continued to expand and progress. Here are some of the key or interesting milestones in the history of aerial cloud seeding:

    Silver Iodide - In the early 1950s, cloud seeding experiments using silver iodide as a nucleating agent gained prominence. Researchers discovered that silver iodide particles could effectively promote ice crystal formation in clouds, leading to enhanced precipitation. These experiments marked the beginning of more organized cloud seeding operations. 

    Project Stormfury - The U.S. government initiated Project Stormfury in the 1960s to study hurricane modification. The project involved seeding clouds around the eyewall of hurricanes to reduce their intensity. While the project yielded some promising results, its overall success remains debated within the scientific community. 

    Expansion of Cloud Seeding - Cloud seeding operations expanded globally during the 1970s. Numerous countries, including the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Australia, conducted cloud seeding experiments for various purposes, such as increasing precipitation for agricultural needs and reducing weather damage. 

    Continued Research and Modernization - Cloud seeding technology evolved in the 1980s and 1990s with meteorological understanding and computational modeling advancements. Research to refine seeding techniques and improve the understanding of cloud physics persisted. 

    As you can see, throughout its history, scientists, meteorologists, policymakers, and aviators continue to assess and refine cloud seeding techniques based on the evolving understanding of atmospheric processes and the need for responsible environmental stewardship.

    What is Cloud Seeding? 

    Aerial cloud seeding is a weather modification technique involving dispersing various substances into clouds to influence precipitation and weather patterns. Cloud seeding is primarily carried out using aircraft that release these substances, such as silver iodide or potassium iodide, into the atmosphere at specific altitudes where clouds are present. These substances serve as nucleating agents, encouraging ice crystals to form within the cloud.

    The process of cloud seeding is based on the idea that these ice crystals will grow larger as water vapor in the cloud freezes onto them, eventually becoming heavy enough to fall as precipitation. This can potentially enhance rainfall or snowfall in areas where it is needed, such as drought-prone regions or those facing water shortages. Cloud seeding is also sometimes used to reduce the size of hailstones in thunderstorms, thereby mitigating hail damage to crops and property. 

    Overall, the effectiveness of cloud seeding can vary depending on various factors, including the type of clouds, the availability of moisture, and the prevailing atmospheric conditions. The scientific community continues to study and debate cloud seeding practices' effectiveness, environmental impact, and ethical considerations.

    What are the Best Aircraft for Seeding? 

    Regarding the aviation side of aerial cloud seeding, various aircraft are employed for such operations, depending on the type of cloud, the altitude at which seeding is needed, and the specific seeding technology being employed. Here are some common types of aircraft used for cloud seeding and their operational benefits:

    Fixed-Wing Aircraft - These are conventional GA airplanes (Tecnam P2006T, Partenavia P.68, Piper Seneca II, etc.) equipped with cloud-seeding equipment. These aircraft, especially twinengine, are known for their ability to fly at lower speeds and altitudes, making them well-suited for seeding clouds closer to the ground. Their slower speed allows for more controlled and targeted seeding. 

    Turboprop Aircraft - Turboprop aircraft (Beechcraft King Air, Cessna Caravan, etc.) are known for their ability to fly at higher speeds and altitudes, making them well-suited for wide-area cloud seeding operations. Because of their performance, they can cover larger areas and be employed in various weather conditions. Additionally, turboprop aircraft can be used for research and airborne cloud seeding operations. 

    Helicopters - Helicopters (Bell 206 JetRanger, Airbus Helicopters AS350, etc.) are used for low-level cloud seeding operations, particularly in mountainous or rugged terrain where access by other aircraft might be challenging. Helicopters provide greater maneuverability and flexibility in reaching specific areas. 

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) - In recent years, there has been interest in using drones for cloud seeding experiments. Drones (Meteomatics Meteodrone MM-670, Drone America Savant, etc.) offer the advantage of flying at lower altitudes and in challenging conditions while providing safety for crew members who might not need to be on board during potentially risky operations.

    Bottomline, the choice of aircraft (fixed-wing, turboprop, helicopter, or drone) depends on the specific goals of the cloud seeding operation, the target clouds, and the available technology. Each type of aircraft has its advantages and limitations, and the selection is made based on factors such as aircraft capabilities, weather conditions, safety considerations, and the desired outcome of the cloud seeding operation. 

    It's worth noting that advances in technology and aviation continue to influence the types of aircraft used for cloud seeding. Additionally, regulations and safety standards are crucial in determining an aircraft's suitability for cloud seeding operations. 

    Types of Aerial Cloud Seeding Methods 

    Aerial cloud seeding methods can vary based on the type of aircraft used, the seeding technology, and the desired outcome. Here are some different aerial cloud seeding methods categorized by the type of aircraft generally associated with them:

    Fixed-Wing Aircraft 

    Flare Release – Fixed-wing aircraft can release flares containing seeding agents, such as silver iodide or other nucleating particles. The flares burn as they descend through the cloud, releasing particles that promote ice crystal formation.

    Low-Level Seeding – Fixed-wing aircraft are often used for low-level cloud seeding, such as targeting clouds at lower altitudes over agricultural areas. These aircraft can fly slower, allowing for more controlled cloud seeding.

    Probes or Dispensers – Some fixed-wing aircraft have probes or dispensers that release seeding agents directly into the cloud as the aircraft flies through it. 

    Turboprop Aircraft 

    Pyrotechnic Devices – Similar to flares, pyrotechnic devices are released from turboprop aircraft. These devices create controlled explosions that disperse seeding agents into the cloud.

    Seed Ejection System – Turboprop aircraft can be equipped with systems that release seeding agents through tubes or nozzles. These systems can be adjusted for altitude and cloud type.

    Cloud Penetrating Aircraft – Specialized aircraft designed for cloud research and seeding, known as cloud penetrators, can be used for precise seeding. These aircraft have instruments for measuring atmospheric conditions and cloud characteristics.


    Low-Level Seeding – Helicopters are particularly useful for low-level cloud seeding in rugged terrain or areas other aircraft might have difficulty accessing. They provide flexibility in reaching specific target areas. 

    Seeding on Standby – Helicopters can be stationed near areas prone to hailstorms. When a storm is detected, the helicopter can quickly deploy to seed the storm and mitigate hail damage.  

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) 

    Precision Seeding – Drones offer the advantage of precision in seeding operations. They can be programmed to release seeding agents at specific altitudes and locations, allowing for targeted seeding. 

    Remote Sensing – Drones equipped with remote sensing instruments can gather real-time data about cloud conditions, helping to make informed decisions about when and where to seed.

    Research Aircraft 

    Advanced Cloud Studies – Besides seeding, the Aerial Work community provides research aircraft equipped with specialized instruments that can be used to study cloud physics, atmospheric conditions, and the behavior of seeding agents in clouds. This information informs seeding strategies. 

    In general, each method has its advantages and limitations. The choice of method, like aircraft, depends on factors such as the specific seeding goals, the type of cloud, the altitude at which seeding is needed, and the available technology. Additionally, proper safety measures and adherence to local and regional regulations are critical for successful and responsible cloud seeding operations, regardless of the method used.

    The Pro's & Con's 

    Like any weather modification technique or effort, aerial cloud seeding has potential benefits and drawbacks. Here are some of the pros and cons associated with aerial cloud seeding.


    Increased Precipitation – One of the primary goals of cloud seeding is to enhance precipitation in regions experiencing water scarcity or drought conditions. By promoting the formation of ice crystals and increasing the likelihood of precipitation, cloud seeding can contribute to water resources for agriculture, drinking water, and other needs. 

    Crop Protection – Cloud seeding can help reduce hail damage to crops by dispersing substances that reduce the size of hailstones or promote their melting before reaching the ground. This can mitigate economic losses for farmers. 

    Water Management – Cloud seeding can aid in managing water resources by augmenting natural precipitation patterns. This can help stabilize reservoir levels, replenish groundwater, and support ecosystems that rely on a consistent water supply. 

    Climate Change Adaptation – Cloud seeding might offer a means of adapting to changing climate conditions, particularly in areas where precipitation patterns are shifting due to climate change.


    Effectiveness Uncertainty – The effectiveness of cloud seeding remains a subject of debate. While some studies have reported positive results, others have found limited impact or no statistically significant difference in precipitation levels. Factors such as atmospheric conditions, cloud characteristics, and seeding methods can influence outcomes. 

    Environmental Impact – Introducing seeding agents into the atmosphere raises concerns about potential environmental impacts. These substances can disperse and affect air quality, soil, water bodies, and ecosystems. 

    Ethical Considerations ("Playing God") – Manipulating weather patterns raises ethical questions about human intervention in natural processes. When, where, and how to conduct cloud seeding must balance potential benefits against ethical concerns. Additionally, modifying precipitation patterns in one area could lead to unintended consequences in neighboring regions. Altering natural weather patterns might disrupt ecosystems, water cycles, and agricultural practices. 

    It's essential to recognize that the pros and cons of aerial cloud seeding can vary based on geographic location, specific seeding techniques used, and advancements in technology and research. However, decision-makers who leverage aerial cloud seeding are in a position to carefully weigh these factors and engage in thorough scientific assessment before implementing cloud seeding operations.

    What is the Future? 

    Regarding the pros and cons, the future of aerial cloud seeding remains uncertain as a global service and is subject to ongoing research and technological advancements. However, according to Darren Hall, Vice President – Business Development at Fargojet Weather Modification Incorporated, "there are many positive vectors the community could take to expand its services. Now, more than ever, the worldwide need for solutions to atmospheric necessities, such as water resource management and environmental quality monitoring, is critical. Cloud seeding will continue to play a major part in this effort." Along with that, here are a few potential directions that aerial cloud seeding could take in the near future: 

    Advanced Nucleating Agents - Researchers are continually exploring new and more effective substances that can act as nucleating agents for cloud seeding. These agents could produce a higher efficiency in promoting ice crystal formation, potentially leading to more successful precipitation enhancement. 

    Improved Weather Forecasting - Meteorological and atmospheric science advances could lead to better cloud formation and behavior predictions. This could enable cloud seeding operations to be more targeted and precise, increasing the likelihood of success and expansion of such operations. 

    Integration with Climate Change Mitigation - Some researchers are exploring the potential of cloud seeding as a tool for climate change mitigation. For example, particular cloud seeding techniques could be employed to increase the reflectivity of clouds, which could help cool the Earth's surface by reflecting more sunlight back into space.

    Environmental Considerations - As the environmental impacts of various weather modification techniques are understood, the future of cloud seeding could focus on minimizing any potential adverse effects on ecosystems, air quality, and water resources. 

    Global Collaboration - The future of cloud seeding may involve more international collaboration to address shared water resource challenges. Countries with expertise in cloud seeding techniques could work together to develop solutions for water scarcity issues in various parts of the world. 

    As highlighted, cloud seeding holds potential benefits but also uncertainties and challenges. Continuing scientific research, ethical considerations, and environmental impact assessments will determine the direction and the future of aerial cloud seeding.


    With the threat of more droughts expanding around the globe, solutions like aerial cloud seeding efforts are becoming critical to ensure "water taps" don't run dry. Because aerial cloud seeding is a relatively new Aerial Work operation in aviation history, and the science of weather modification is still in its beginnings, public perception has bordered between pessimism and acceptance. However, with such controversy, the Aerial Work community continues to fly modified GA fixed-wing, rotor-wing, helicopters, and drone aircraft using specialized seeding methods and systems. With the need for water, the aerial cloud seeding community will continue to perfect its science and employ new aerial methods and systems to better understand and mitigate the devastating effects of drought. So, the next time you hear about a drought somewhere in the world, consider how aerial cloud seeding could positively relieve many thirsty living beings.

    Photos: Fargo Jet Center / Weather Modification International

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